(Actual standard in bold; suggestions of activities for the parents in italics)
K.CC.1- Count to 100 by ones and by tens.
Your child should be able to count from 1-100 and count to 100 by skip counting by 10’s effortlessly, easily and confidently. Listen to your child as the count out loud for you. This is a great activity for him/her to do while riding in the car, waiting at the doctor’s office, or even a few minutes before dinner time!
K.CC.2- Count forward beginning from a given number within the known sequence (instead of having to begin at 1).
Your child should be able to count and fill in missing numbers, in an ordered number sequence, from 1-100. For example, you can make up a few bingo cards with 20 numbers on it (such as starting at 45, 46, 47, ___, 49 in the first row and 50, 51, 52, ____, 54 in the second row, etc.) and 5 numbers missing (in a row across, a row down, or a row diagonally). He/she will need to fill in the missing numbers in order to get bingo! Great to laminate and fill in the numbers with dry erase markers at a restaurant or any place with a “wait” time!
K.CC.3- Write numbers from 0 to 20. Represent a number of objects with a written numeral 0-20 (with 0 representing a count of no objects).
Your child should be able to write the numbers 0-20 and understand the value of each number. For example, give your child a few sheets of stickers and a few blank pieces of paper. Say, “I want you to place 6 stickers on the first piece of paper.” Next say, “Now, I want you to write the number that represents the number of stickers you have on your paper.” Keep doing this by saying numbers out of order and having your child sticker the paper and write the corresponding numbers. Once you are done, have your child tape a number line 0-20 around a room that they are commonly in (using the papers from the activity just completed). He/she can use this number line in the future with other math games to help him/her count!
K.CC.4A- Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality. When counting objects, say the number names in the standard order, pairing each object with one and only one number name and each number name with one and only one object.
Your child should be able to count different groups of objects, out of order, and pair them with the correct written number 1-10. For example, if you were to have stickers on different sheets of paper in this order: 7, 5, 2, 9, 6; and those numbers written on separate sheets of paper as well, then your child should be able to pick up the number “2” and pair it with the 2 stickers. Next, he/she would pick up the number “5” and match it with the 5 stickers. Then, he/she would pick up the number “6” and match it with the 6 stickers, etc.
K.CC.4B- Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality. Understand that the last number name said tells the number of objects counted. The number of objects is the same regardless of their arrangement or the order in which they were counted.
Your child should be able to recognize numbers in order. For example, if you were to count up from 0-10 saying, “1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10”, your child should be able to realize that you skipped over the number 8! You can also do this by showing your child a number line with certain numbers missing. You can do this by using strips of colored paper and clothes pins with the numbers 0-10 written on them. You would first show your child simple number lines such as “0, 1, ___, 3, 4, 5” and say, “I wonder what number is missing?” Your child should then count out loud from 0-5, realizing that the number 2 is missing! He/she would then clip the clothes pin with the number 2 written on it on the number line. You can also build your child up to more difficult number lines such as “4, 5, ___, 7, 8, ___, 10”. Not starting the number line at 0 and having more than one missing number will be more of a challenge!
K.CC.4C- Understand the relationship between numbers and quantities; connect counting to cardinality. Understand that each successive number name refers to a quantity that is one larger.
Your child should be able to recognize that each number on a number line 0-10 is 1 larger than the number before it. For example, have a pre-made number line 0-10 written out so you and your child can refer to it together. Next, have a pad of paper or a dry erase board and a handful of pennies handy to complete the following activity. Say, “0 + 1 = 1 and 1 comes after 0 on a number line! Can you put a finger on the number 0 and the number 1 on this number line? Great! Do you see that 1 comes after 0 because 1 is 1 bigger than 0?” Give your child 0 pennies and give yourself 1 penny and say, “Who has the greater amount of pennies, me or you?” When he/she answers that you have more pennies, re-enforce the idea that this is because 1 is 1 place greater than 0 on the number line. Continue counting out each number all the way to 10. (1 + 1 = 2, 2 + 1 = 3, 3 + 1 = 4, 4 + 1 = 5, 5 + 1 = 6, 6 + 1 = 7, 7 + 1 = 8, 8 + 1 = 9, 9 + 1 = 10.)
K.CC.5- Count to answer “how many?” questions about as many as 20 things arranged in a line, a rectangular array, or a circle, or as many as 10 things in a scattered configuration; given a number from 1–20, count out that many objects.
Your child should be able to count objects in a group, ranging in size from 1-20. For example, have 20 different colored crayons out and ready to work with your child. Lay out 4 of these crayons and say, “How many crayons do you see?” Count with your child, “1, 2, 3, 4!” There are 4 crayons total!” (You might want to have your child touch each crayon so they know which crayons they have already counted.) Then, show your child a different grouping of crayons such as 9 and say, “How many crayons do you see?” Count with your child, “1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9!” There are 9 crayons total!” Keep going with this activity until your child can correctly identify each grouping of crayons 1-20.
K.CC.6- Identify whether the number of objects in one group is greater than, less than, or equal to the number of objects in another group, e.g., by using matching and counting strategies (include groups with up to 10 objects).
Your child should be able to decide what groups of objects are greater than, less than, or equal to another group of objects including groups with up to 10 objects. For example, have a box of raisins out and dump them onto the table. Count out 5 raisins to your child and 3 raisin to yourself and say “Who has the greater amount of raisins?” Your child will say, “I do!” Say, “Very good, how did you know that?” Then have your child count each, individual raisin, “1, 2, 3, 4, 5! I have 5 raisins and you have 1, 2, 3! You have 3 raisins” Re-enforce the idea that 5 is bigger than 3. Next, count out 6 raisins to your child and 9 raisins to yourself. Say, “Who has the least or fewest amount of raisins?” Have your child count out his/her raisins and then your raisins. He/she should realize that you have more raisins since 9 is bigger than 6. Finally, count out 5 raisins to your child and 5 raisins to yourself and ask, “Who has the most raisins now?” Have your child count his/her raisins and your raisins until they realize that you each have 5. He/she should realize that you have the same number of raisins. Next, give the box of raisins to your child and let them be in charge of dealing out the raisins and asking the questions!
K.CC.7- Compare two numbers between 1 and 10 presented as written numerals.
Your child should be able to recognize which numbers come “greater than” and “less than” when shown 2 numbers ranging from 1-10. For example, have a deck of cards out with the jokers, kings and queens removed. Keep the aces to represent the number 1 (you might want to right the number “1” in the middle of the ace so your child doesn’t get confused.) Next, split the deck of cards down the middle so you have 2 different piles of cards. Flip over the first card on each deck. Let’s pretend you flipped over a 5 and a 7. Ask your child, “What number is smaller, 5 or 7?” Your child should say, “5 because when I count 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, I come to the number 5 before I come to the number 7.” Say, “Good, so that means that 5 is less than 7!” If your child has difficulty figuring this out, suggest that they count up from 1 until they reach one of the numbers on the cards. Then, flip over the next 2 cards in the deck. Let’s pretend you flipped over an 8 and a 3. Ask your child, “What number is bigger, 8 or 3?” Your child should say 8 because 8 is bigger than 3, but again, if he/she needs help, instruct them to start counting up from 1-10. When he/she reaches the number 3, say, “Oh, the last number can’t be 3 because we haven’t said the number 8 yet! Let’s keep counting to make sure, though!” Then say, “Good, so that means that 8 is greater than 3!” Keep playing this game until your child grasps the concept. You can even keep score to make it more fun!
Operations and Algebraic Thinking
K.OA.1- Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, drawings, sounds (e.g., claps), acting out situations, verbal explanations, expressions, or equations.
Your child should be able to add and subtract simple numbers by using objects as counters and/or his/her fingers. For example, use pieces of fruit such as grapes to first show addition problems. Show two different groups of grapes, one group with 3 grapes and one group with 4 grapes. Have your child move the 4 grapes over to the group of 3 grapes by counting up, “4, 5, 6, 7! There are 7 grapes total!” Try a few more grape addition problems making sure that the total doesn’t go past 10. Next, try some subtraction problems. Show your child a pile of 8 grapes and say, “How many grapes would I have left if I decided to eat 3 grapes?” Count out 3 grapes and put them in a pile in front of you. Have your child count the remaining grapes out loud, “1, 2, 3, 4, 5! There would be 5 grapes left!” Say, “Good, so 8 – 3 = 5!” Continue with this activity until your child seems to be adding and subtracting with ease.
K.OA.2- Solve addition and subtraction word problems, and add and subtract within 10, e.g., by using objects or drawings to represent the problem.
Your child should be able to solve simple addition and subtraction word problems when the problem is read out loud to them or difficult words are drawn out. On a pad of chart paper (or larger piece of paper), draw out the following problem on the top half of the paper: “(Insert your child’s name) had 3 banana slices in his/her cereal this morning (draw out cereal and banana slices). Mom had 4 banana slices in her cereal. How many slices of banana did they have altogether?” Supplies your child with something to draw with and they should end up with a number sentence that looks like this: 3 + 4 = 7. The number sentence can be drawn out, written out or both! On the bottom half of the same piece of paper, have the following subtraction problem: “(Insert your child’s name) had 8 slices of banana in his/her cereal (draw out cereal and banana) this morning while Mom only had 2 banana slices. How many more slices of banana did (insert your child’s name) have than Mom?” Your child should come up with the number sentence 8 – 2 = 6. The number sentence can be drawn out, written out or both! Keep this activity up with a problem each morning for both addition and subtraction until your child has the hang of word problems!
K.OA.3- Decompose numbers less than or equal to 10 into pairs in more than one way, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each decomposition by a drawing or equation (e.g., 5 = 2 + 3 and 5 = 4 + 1).
Your child should be able to know multiple fact families for adding specific numbers 1-10. For example, you can have a variety of stickers in different colors and shapes. You can show your child that 3 star stickers + 2 heart stickers = 5 total stickers (and write 3 + 2 = 5 underneath this visual.) Then, sticker out 2 star stickers + 3 heart stickers = 5 total stickers (and write 2 + 3 = 5 underneath this visual.) Next, sticker out 4 star stickers and 1 heart sticker. Show that there are still 5 total stickers even though the numbers of hearts/stars have changed. Also sticker out 1 star sticker + 4 heart stickers = 5 total stickers (and write 1 + 4 = 5 underneath). Finally, sticker out 5 star stickers + 0 heart stickers = 5 total stickers and write 5 + 0 = 5 underneath. Show your child that the addition fact family for the number 5 is 5 + 0 = 5, 3 + 2 = 5, 2 + 3 = 5, 4 + 1 = 5 and 1 + 4 = 5. Have a few more problems set up to see if your child can identify the entire addition number sentence in the stated fact family!
K.OA.4- For any number from 1 to 9, find the number that makes 10 when added to the given number, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record the answer with a drawing or equation.
Your child should be able to figure out what number will make a group of 10 when given a certain number from 1-10. For example, get out 10 building blocks to create a visual for your child. Show him/her 9 blocks in a pile and ask him/her, “How many more blocks would I have to add to this pile to make 10? Let’s count up! 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10! 10 comes after 9 so I know I will only need to add one more block!” (You can count up using your fingers as a visual also so your child can easily see that one finger is still down so one more finger would be needed to make 10.) Continue working with the blocks, giving your child every possible combination until you reach 10! If your child needs extra help, you can show him/her the number of blocks left to make a group of 10 at first (such as if you give him/her 7 blocks and leave the other 3 blocks in sight) but, eventually, work on having the extra blocks out of sight.
K.OA.5- Fluently add and subtract within 5.
Your child should be able to fluently add and subtract numbers 1- 5. For example, you can start off by giving your child objects such as blocks, pennies, stickers, etc. to help him/her add or subtract. Eventually, though, you will want to work these facts into his/her memory; having them on automatic recall. Have your child sit with at a table with pencil and a paper. Say, “I’m going to call out some addition and subtraction problems. I want you to solve the problems as fast as you can and when you have an answer make a ‘buzzzz’ sound like you’re buzzing in on a game show!” Call out problems and give your child points for every problem they get correct!
Number & Operations in Base Ten
K.NBT.1- Compose and decompose numbers from 11 to 19 into ten ones and some further ones, e.g., by using objects or drawings, and record each composition or decomposition by a drawing or equation (such as 18 = 10 + 8); understand that these numbers are composed of ten ones and one, two, three, four, five, six, seven, eight, or nine ones.
Your child should be able to recognize that there is one group of 10 in the numbers 11-19 and some ones. For example, you will need a box of straws and a rubber band. Show your child 13 straws and count them out together. Then say, “I know that there is one group of 10 in the number 13 because there is a 1 in my tens place.” Count out 10 straws and rubber band them together. Say, “When I rubber band my group of 10 straws together, I’m left with 3 straws. There is a 3 in my ones place so 10 + 3 must equal 13! There are 13 straws all together in this batch!” Next, have your child practice given a bunch of straws between the numbers 11-19!
Measurement and Data
K.MD.1- Describe measurable attributes of objects, such as length or weight. Describe several measurable attributes of a single object.
Your child should be able to look at two objects and decide which one is taller/shorter, bigger/smaller, heavier/lighter, empty/full. For example, take your child on a scavenger hung around your house! Have a “game board” made up prior to walking around that has clues on it such as “Find 2 stuffed animals in your room. Decide which stuffed animal is taller.” When you and your child go to his/her room, he/she will choose two stuffed animals that are different heights such as a yellow giraffe and a brown monkey and he/she will decide the yellow giraffe is taller. Have other clues on game board too, such as, “Go to the kitchen and find a glass that is empty and a glass that is full.” “Go to the living room and decide which object is shorter, the chair or the couch.” Etc. Have a least of at least 10 items for your child to find, compare and measure! For an extra challenge, have him/her measure each object with a ruler in inches! He/she will need your help with this task.
K.MD.2- Directly compare two objects with a measurable attribute in common, to see which object has “more of”/“less of” the attribute, and describe the difference. For example, directly compare the heights of two children and describe one child as taller/shorter.
Your child should be able to measure 2 similar objects and decide which one is larger and which one is smaller. For example, you can measure the heights of each member of the family using a measuring tape. Mark off and label each person’s height (mom, dad, sister, brother, etc.) Then, have your child compare his/her height with mom’s height, brother/sister’s height. Then have your child compare mom and dad’s heights, etc.
K.MD.3- Classify objects into given categories; count the numbers of objects in each category and sort the categories by count.
Your child should be able to sort similar objects by their attributes into categories. For example, make up a goody bag like your child would get at a birthday party. Put 10 pencils, 9 stickers, 8 crayons, 7 erasers, 6 paper clips, 5 bouncy balls, 4 pennies, 3 markers, 2 rubber bands, and 1 lollypop. Have a pre-made sheet of paper out with a picture of each object so your child knows where to place each object when they find it in the goody bag. Once they have every object on the sheet of paper, have your child count each object in each category, writing the number on the paper!
Geometry (squares, circles, triangles, rectangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders, and spheres).
K.G.1- Describe objects in the environment using names of shapes, and describe the relative positions of these objects using terms such as above, below, beside, in front of, behind, and next to.
Your child should be able to recognize squares, circles, triangles, and rectangles in objects that they run into in his/her everyday life and use the following terms to describe the shapes location: top, bottom, up, down, in front of, behind, over, under, next to. For example, make up a scavenger hunt sheet with pictures of a square, circle, triangle, and rectangle on top. Next, take your child outside for a walk to spot these shapes in the environment around them. For example, on your walk you may encounter a yield sign (an upside-down triangle) and say, “That shape looks like a triangle to me but something seems a little different.” Your child should then say, “Because it’s upside-down!” As you walk down the road you might point out that your neighbors door is a rectangle and is located at the top of their front steps. Soon, your child will be spotting shapes on his/her own, and when they do, document each object, shape and location on the scavenger hunt sheet you made prior to your walk! Happy shape hunting!
K.G.2- Correctly name shapes regardless of their orientations or overall size.
Your child should be able to identify shapes no matter what size they are. For example, cut out a variety of different sized squares, circles, triangles and rectangles (preferably small, medium and large). Mix up all the shapes on a table. Have on hand a hole punch and string and tell your child that today you are going to be making some decorations for your house but you need help picking out the correct shapes. You want all the circles to be on one line, all the triangles to be on one line, all the squares to be on one line and all the circles to be on one line. Next, have your child gather up all the shapes in 4 separate piles and sting each pile onto a piece of string. You will have a beautiful shape garland for a decoration around your house! If your child seems confused about the shapes do to their size, do an example piece of garland together saying, “Just because this square is smaller than this square doesn’t mean that it’s not a square. There are still 4 equal sides and 4 corners!”
K.G.3- Identify shapes as two-dimensional (lying in a plane, “flat”) or three-dimensional (“solid”).
Your child should be able to recognize the difference between two- dimensional and three-dimensional shapes looking at squares, rectangles, circles, triangles, hexagons, cubes, cones, cylinders and spheres. For example, you can play a matching game with your child in which you show them a picture of a two-dimensional shape (square, circle, rectangle, triangle, hexagon) and they need to locate the three- dimensional shape of that object. Have a bunch of objects in front of your child so that he/she needs to sort through the objects until they have the correct one!
K.G.4- Analyze and compare two- and three-dimensional shapes, in different sizes and orientations, using informal language to describe their similarities, differences, parts (e.g., number of sides and vertices/“corners”) and other attributes (e.g., having sides of equal length).
Your child should be able to recognize two-dimensional and three-dimensional shapes and the properties belonging to that shape. For example, you can use blocks (square and rectangular) to count the sides and corners of each shape. A square will have 4 equal sides and 4 corners and a rectangle will have opposite sides equal and 4 corners. You can use cut outs of triangles and hexagons to count the sides and corners. In an equilateral triangle, there are 3 equal sides and 3 corners. In a hexagon, there are 6 equal sides and 6 corners. For a cone, use an ice cream cone! There is 1 corner on a cone or point! Show your child that if the cone was solid, there would be one surface or side on it (where the ice cream goes into the cone). Otherwise, there aren’t any sides. Show your child a can of vegetables to represent a cylinder. The two circles on each side represent 2 sides on the cylinder. There are no points on a cylinder. Show your child a ball (soccer, baseball, golf, etc.) to represent a sphere. There are no sides and no corners on a sphere. Finally, show your child a square box to represent a cube. There are 6 sides on a cube and 8 corners! After you show your child these objects, give them time to explore and count the sides and corners on his/her own!
K.G.5- Model shapes in the world by building shapes from components (e.g., sticks and clay balls) and drawing shapes.
Your child should be able to create squares, circles, triangles, and rectangles using objects such as modeling clay or popsicle sticks. For example, have out 4 pieces of different colored construction paper. On the top of each paper, write the name of one shape. (If this is the first time your child is “making” a shape, you might want to draw out the shape first, have he/she construct the shape to your outline, and then flip the paper over and have he/she construct the shape on their own.) Then, have your child build the 4 different shapes specified using the building materials you provided!
K.G.6- Compose simple shapes to form larger shapes. For example, “Can you join these two triangles with full sides touching to make a rectangle?”
Your child should be able to manipulate smaller shapes to make larger shapes. For example, have card board cut outs of 4 right triangles, 2 squares, and 2 rectangles. Your child should be able to make a square out of 2 of the triangles and a rectangle out of 4 of the triangles. Using the 2 squares, your child should be able to make a rectangle. Out of the 2 rectangles (depending on the size of the sides such as each rectangle has a width of 3 inches and a length of 6 inches) your child should be able to make a large square. It will be like putting a puzzle together!
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